IP
 

الرئيسيةاليوميةس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:34 pm

أحبتي في الله
أخواني وأخواتي


هذا الموضوع منقول وبرغم انه باللغة الانجليزية ولكن يمكن استخدام مترجم جوجل لمزيد من التوضيح
و ذلك لاهمية الرسوم المتحركة في الموضوع
ارجو ان ينال رضاكم



CNC WORK - AN INTRODUCTION


In
Industry it is not efficient or profitable to make everyday products by
hand. On a CNC machine it is possible to make hundreds or even
thousands of the same item in a day. First a design is drawn using
design software, then it is processed by the computer and manufactured
using the CNC machine. The machine featured below is the BOXFORD DUET.
This is a small CNC machine and can be used to machine woods, plastics
and aluminium. In industry, CNC machines can be extremely large. The
Duet is one of the smaller CNCs and is ideal for use in schools.




Have
a look at the photograph on the right. Can you imagine how long it
would take a skilled worker to ‘carve’ this shape out of wood or a soft
material - it would probably take a full day. We will be going through
its manufacture, one step at a time using a CNC machine (next page). How
long do you think manufacturing this product with a CNC machine will
take ?




THE CNC MACHINE



The VICE: This
holds the material to be cut or shaped. Material must be held securely
otherwise it may 'fly' out of the vice when the CNC begins to machine.
Normally the vice will be like a clamp that holds the material in the
correct position.
The GUARD: The
guard protects the person using the CNC. When the CNC is machining the
material small pieces can be 'shoot' off the material at high speed.
This could be dangerous if a piece hit the person operating the machine.
The guard completely encloses the the dangerous areas of the CNC.
The CHUCK:
This holds the material that is to be shaped. The material must be
placed in it very carefully so that when the CNC is working the material
is not thrown out at high speed.
The MOTOR: The motor is enclosed inside the machine. This is the part that rotates the chuck at high speed.
The LATHE BED: The
base of the machine. Usually a CNC is bolted down so that it cannot
move through the vibration of the machine when it is working. The CUTTING TOOL: This is usually made from high quality steel and it is the part that actually cuts the material to be shaped.
1.
Draw a small CNC machine and label the most important parts. 2. List
the safety factors that people must be aware of before they operate a
CNC or similar machine.



تابعونا ...
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:35 pm

BASIC DIAGRAM - BOXFORD DUET

A
simplified diagram of the Boxford Duet is seen below. The diagram is
labelled and some information is listed explaining the main parts of the
duet and what they do.




1. Using an A4 piece of paper draw an accurate diagram of a Boxford Duet.
2. Label and describe the most important parts.
3. List and explain some of the difficulties you had when manufacturing a product using a CNC machine.

تابع


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:36 pm


WHAT DOES 'CNC' MEAN?

V. Ryan © 2002

CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer converts the design into numbers which the computer uses to control the cutting and shaping of the material.



HOW TO USE A TYPICAL CNC MACHINE

1.
The design is loaded into the computer which is attached to the CNC
machine. The computer changes the design into a special code (numerical)
that controls the way the CNC cuts and shapes the material.




2.
The material to be shaped is taped on to a block with double sided
tape. This must be done carefully so that it does not come off the block
during machining.




3.
The block is then placed in the vice, inside the CNC. It must be
tightened up carefully. If it is not secure when the machine starts to
cut the material it can come away from the vice. When the machine starts
working, the vice moves up, down, right and left according to the
design.




4.
The guard is placed in position. It protects the machine operator in
case the material is pulled out of the vice by the power of the cutter.
For safety reasons, if the guard is not in position the motor will not
start.




5.
The CNC is turned on and the shape is cut from the material. When the
cutter has stopped the shaped material can be removed from the vice.
Total time - for simple designs - 15 minutes.




In
your own words and with the help of diagrams, explained the stages
involved in the use of a CNC machine such as the one shown above.


تابع

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:37 pm

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION FLOWCHART
AND QUALITY CONTROL


A
production flow chart is very important when planning the manufacture
of a product. Although CNC products can be small, quality in manufacture
is crucial. Draw a flowchart similar to the one below. This should
explain every stage of the manufacture of a product you have produced
through the use of a CNC machine. Include a number of quality checks.
Quality control is an essential part of any project and at any stage the
product may be rejected if a fault or inaccuracy is found.
To help you create your production flow chart the stages involved in the manufacture of a CNC project are listed on the previous page. Also a photograph of the product, with details are shown below. Remember to include quality control.




CNC
PROJECT: This is a small trophy for a cyclist. The part manufactured
through CNC is the rectangular clear plastic piece. This has been
engraved using a CNC machine. The trophy also has an MDF back which has
been coloured to provide scenery and a small green plastic front shaped
to give the illusion of grass.





1. What is a recycle bin? 2. How could products placed in the recycle bin be used if they cannot be recycled?


تابع


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:39 pm



CNC MACHINE - INPUT, PROCESS, OUTPUT


A CNC production facility needs three pieces of equipment:

A Computer.

The
computer is used to draw the design. However, the design is only a
picture and the CNC machine cannot use this to manufacture the product.
The computer software must also convert the drawing into numbers
(coordinates) that the CNC machine can use when it starts to cut and
shape the material.

An Interface.

A
computer cannot be directly connected to a CNC machine. The computer is
connected to an interface. This converts the signals from the computer
to a form that the CNC machine understands. The signals are in the form
of digital signals when they are sent to the CNC machine.

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Machine.
The
signals from the interface control the motors on the CNC machine. The
signals determine the way the vice moves. The vice moves in three
directions X, Y and Z. (Horizontally, vertically and depth). The signals
also control the speed of the cutting tool.




QUESTION: Draw the systems diagram shown above and explain what happens in the INPUT, PROCESS and OUTPUT sections.

تابعونا ...


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:40 pm



POSTER / FLYER DESIGN TO PROMOTE
YOUR CNC PRODUCT



Designing
a promotional leaflet is very important. You may have spent a lot of
time and money developing a product but unless people know it exists, it
will not sell. You are to design a leaflet that will clearly explain
the nature of your product and where it can be purchased. An example can
be seen below.





QUESTION:
List any other information you feel is important - information that
should be mentioned on the leaflet. For example, cost.

تابع


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:41 pm

2D COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE

There
are two types of computer aided design software. 2D design software
allows the designer to design shapes with very limited three dimensional
properties. Do not underestimate the designs that can be achieved
through 2D software



1.
The design is drawn using software such as TechSoft 2D Design. At first
appearance this software looks basic but, depending on the skill of the
designer, quite complex designs can be produced.
The example shown is a simple block of material with initials.





2.
When the design is complete the drawing is processed. This converts the
drawing into a detailed series of X, Y and Z coordinates. Processing
must take place before the CNC machine can cut the design from material.

When the CNC machine shapes the material the cutter follows the coordinates, in sequence, until the shape has been manufactured.




3.
Most CAD/CAM software allows the designer to test the manufacture of
his/her design on a computer rather than actually making it. This saves
time and materials. Testing designs is carried out using ‘simulation’
software (Boxford use ‘CAD/CAM Design Tools’ software). When the design
is run through simulation software the computer displays the
manufacturing on the screen. It also checks whether or not the design
can be manufactured successfully. Many designs have to be altered before
they can be made by a CNC machine.




After all the testing and improvements to the design, it can finally be manufactured on a CNC machine.


QUESTION:
1. Draw a flow chart showing the stages of designing a 2D product and it’s manufacture on a CNC machine.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:42 pm

3D COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE


3D
Design software such as Pro/DESKTOP® allows the designer to produce
three dimensional representations of his/her ideas. When completed the
design can be viewed on the screen and it can even be revolved and
examined at any angle. 3D software such as Pro/DESKTOP® is much more
complex than 2D software such as TechSoft 2D design. It requires
specialist training before it can be used competently.




1.
The designer draws up the design using software such as Pro/DESKTOP®.
The design can be examined in detailed and if modifications/alterations
are needed they can be made on the screen.
Software of this type
allows the designer to model his/her idea on the screen rather than
make/manufacture an expensive model. Good 3D software allows the
designer to design almost any item.





2.
The design is processed. When the design has been completed using
Pro/DESKTOP® it must be exported as a stereo lithography file. This type
of file can be imported into processing software such as Boxford’s
3D-GeoCAM which converts the drawing into a long list of coordinates.
Each set of coordinates is called a GM code.




3.
Most CAD/CAM software allows the designer to test the manufacture of
his/her design on a computer rather than actually making it. This saves
time and materials. Testing designs is carried out using ‘simulation’
software. When the design is run through simulation software the
computer displays the manufacturing on the screen. It also checks
whether or not the design can be manufactured successfully. Many designs
have to be altered before they can be made by a CNC machine.
4. An advanced CNC machine such as the A3 HSRi² (Boxford Machine Tools, Halifax, England)
can be used to manufacture the three dimensional product. This CNC is
both fast and accurate making suitable for school and industrial use.




QUESTIONS:
1. Suggest an object that is best designed through the use of 3D designing software rather than 2D. Why is this the case?
2. Draw a flow chart that shows the stages from designing to making an object using 3D software.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:43 pm

3D MANUFACTURE USING CNC MACHINES


It
is now possible to design and manufacture true three dimensional shapes
in schools. Modern machines such as Boxford’s A3 HSRi² Router can be
used to manufacture products designed in software such as Pro/DESKTOP®,
with a combination of accuracy and speed. The router can shape a variety
of materials including perspex, MDF and model board. 3D modelling
brings modern design and manufacturing technology into the school /
college workshop.




The diagram opposite shows CNC machine capable of three dimensional modelling (3D modelling). Boxford’s A3 HSRi² Router

THE CNC ROUTER - THE IMPORTANT PARTS





QUESTIONS:
1. Draw a simplified diagram of the CNC machine shown above. Label all the parts.
2. List five of the parts label on the CNC above and explain what they are for or what they do.
3. Give an example of a 3D object that could be designed and manufactured school by pupils.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:48 pm

THE CNC CONTROL PANEL




A
CNC machine is normally controlled by a computer and software. However,
most CNC machines have a range of controls for manual use. It is rare
for a CNC machine to be used manually as simple operations are best
carried out on cheap/basic/manual machines. When a CNC machine is used
manually it is been used well below its capability and specification.


CONTROL PANEL FOUND ON BOXFORD'S A3HSRi² ROUTER




RESET BUTTON:
The must important control button is usually the reset button. When the
CNC machine is turned on, the reset button is pressed by the machine
operator. This ‘zeros’ the cutter, moving the cutter to coordinates
0,0,0 on the X,Yand Z axis. In simple terms, the reset button moves the
cutter to the corner of the machine, above the work table. If the reset
button is not pressed, it is possible that the CNC machine will start
cutting the material in the wrong place or even miss cutting the
material and plunge into the work table.

MANUAL CONTROL: The
cutter can be controlled manually although this is rarely needed. The
‘X’ and ‘Y’ buttons control the movement of the cutter along the
horizontal surfaces. The ‘Z’ buttons control depth and up / down
movement.

STOP BUTTON: Most control panels have stop buttons. When pressed these stop the machine very quickly.
SPEED AND FEED: On some CNC machines it is possible to manually vary the speed and feed of the cutter.

QUESTIONS:
1. Study a CNC machine in your workshop. Draw a simple diagram of the control panel and label the main buttons.
2. Why do CNC machines also have manual controls?


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:50 pm

SETTING UP THE CUTTING TOOL TO THE
CORRECT LENGTH


One
of the few operations that the machine operator carries out is to
change the cutting tool. Each CNC machine has a range of cutting tools.
Straight cutters, chamfer V-groove and radius cutters are some examples.
If a detailed design is being manufactured, it may be necessary to
change the cutting tool at least once during the manufacturing process.
It is very important that all the cutters are set up to exactly to the
same length in the collet. If this is not done the material being
machined will be machined at incorrect depths.
A special depth gauge
is used to accurately set up the cutting tools. (see diagram below).
This ‘rule’ applies to all CNC machines although different techniques
may be used depending on the type of the CNC machine.





A
pair of spanners are used to loosen the collet and locking nut. The
cutting tool can then be removed and the new tool put in position. Once
the depth gauge has be used to check the distance from the end of the
cutting tool to the collet, the spanners are used again to tighten the
collet and locking nut.

QUESTIONS:
1. Explain why cutting tools must be set to the same length in the collet, before machining can take place.
2. List the names of cutting tools available for any CNC machine you have used / seen.


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:51 pm


CNC MACHINES AND SAFETY

CNC
machines are very safe to use as they are designed to be as safe as
possible. One of the main advantages of CNC machines is that they are
much safer than manually operated machines. The animation below shows a
Boxford

A3 HSRi² CNC Router with many of its safety features labelled.





1.
Most modern CNC machines are designed so that the cutting tool will not
start unless the guard is in position. Also, the best CNC machines
automatically lock the guard in position whilst the cutter is shaping
material. The guard can only be opened if the cutter has stopped.

2.
It is essential that pupils / students / machine operators receive
‘quality’ instruction before attempting to use any CNC equipment.

3.
CNC routers, used for shaping materials such as woods and plastics,
have built in extraction. Dust can be very dangerous if inhaled and can
also cause eye irritation. The CNC Router shown above has an outlet for
an extraction unit. As the router is fully enclosed, dust cannot escape
into the atmosphere. If an extraction unit is attached the dust is
removed automatically. Most manually operated machine routers have very
limited extraction systems which leave some dust in the air.

4.
The CNC router above has a single phase electrical supply. Most older
machines such as manually operated milling machines and centre lathes
have three phase supplies. A single phase electrical supply can be
‘plugged’ into any available socket. The electrical supply for the
machine comes through a residual circuit breaker (RCB). If an electrical
fault develops the RCB will cut off electrical power immediately.

5.
Single phase CNC machines can be moved more easily because they are
simply unplugged and relocated. Three phase machines are specially wired
by an electrician into the electrical supply and cannot be unplugged.
6.
Most CNC machines work behind a guard or even a closed, transparent
safety door. This means that the operated cannot be hurt by 'flying'
pieces of sharp/hot material. 7.
Commonsense applies to the use of all machines including CNC machines.
Basic safety training regarding working in a workshop and with other
machines applies to CNC machines as well.


QUESTIONS:
1. List the safety features of a typical CNC Machine.
2. Draw a simplified diagram of a CNC machine and point out it's safety features. Explain each feature.

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
Admin
 
 


الجنس الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2012
المزاج المزاج : مشغول




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة   الجمعة يوليو 13, 2012 9:53 pm

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF CNC MACHINES



CNC
Computer Numerical Control machines are widely used in manufacturing
industry. Traditional machines such as vertical millers, centre lathes,
shaping machines, routers etc.... operated by a trained engineer have,
in many cases, been replaced by computer control machines.








COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL - MACHINE



MANUALLY OPERATED CENTRE LATHE


ADVANTAGES



1.
CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
and only need to be switched off for occasional maintenance.
2.
CNC machines are programmed with a design which can then be
manufactured hundreds or even thousands of times. Each manufactured
product will be exactly the same.
3. Less skilled/trained people can operate CNCs unlike manual lathes / milling machines etc.. which need skilled engineers.
4. CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the machines
5.
Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use of ‘virtual
software’. This is software that allows the operator to practice using
the CNC machine on the screen of a computer. The software is similar to a
computer game.
6. CNC
machines can be programmed by advanced design software such as
Pro/DESKTOP®, enabling the manufacture of products that cannot be made
by manual machines, even those used by skilled designers / engineers.
7.
Modern design software allows the designer to simulate the manufacture
of his/her idea. There is no need to make a prototype or a model. This
saves time and money.
8.
One person can supervise many CNC machines as once they are programmed
they can usually be left to work by themselves. Sometimes only the
cutting tools need replacing occasionally. 9.
A skilled engineer can make the same component many times. However, if
each component is carefully studied, each one will vary slightly. A CNC
machine will manufacture each

component as an exact match.

DISADVANTAGES


1. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although costs are slowly coming down.
2.
The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough
to supervise several machines. In years gone by, engineers needed years
of training to operate centre lathes, milling machines and other
manually operated machines. This means many of the old skills are been
lost.
3. Less workers
are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually operated
machines. Investment in CNC machines can lead to unemployment.
4.
Many countries no longer teach pupils / students how to use manually
operated lathes / milling machines etc... Pupils / students no longer
develop the detailed skills required by engineers of the past. These
include mathematical and engineering skills.

QUESTIONS:
1. List more advantages and disadvantages of CNC machines
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://tcnc.hooxs.com
 
ملف متكامل لماكينات CNC بالرسوم المتحركة
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتديات TCNC :: ساحة CNC-
انتقل الى: